[USA and Germany, 1920/21] In the USA, the political situation changed decisively. President Wilson was exposed to hostility from all sides. During a campaign for the Versailles peace treaty, he collapsed and remained seriously ill for the rest of his life.
The Versailles Treaty met determined opponents. They particularly disagreed to the point that the League of Nations should have the right to use American troops in international conflicts, even without the consent of the US Congress. Neither Wilson nor his opponents were willing to compromise. The Versailles treaty did not find the necessary majority in Congress and was not ratified. The League of Nations, the project dearest to Wilson’s heart, came into being, but without the USA.
“Return to normalcy” – Republican presidents
In the presidential elections in 1920, the Rublican Warren G. Harding ran his campaign on the slogan “return to normalcy”. U.S. troops had fought in Europe, at home 1919 had been a year marked by major strikes, large-scale race riots in Chicago and other cities and anarchist attacks on Wall Street. The wartime economic boom had collapsed. Many Americans did not want to get their country involved in international conflicts again.
Harding’s campaign hit the spot – the Republicans returned to the White House with a landslide victory.
Berlin peace treaty
It did not make General Allen’s task easier – technically, the USA were still at War with Germany and Austria-Hungary.
In August 1921, a separate peace treaty between the USA and Germany was signed in Berlin, a similar treaty with Hungary also in August in Budapest, a third with Austria in November in Vienna. Economic and diplomatic relations were positive during the 1920s.
The troops are ordered home
The majority of Americans did not regret the withdrawal from Europe. Hardly anyone was interested in the occupied Rhineland. Now the largest part of the troops at the Rhine were withdrawn, among them Chiara und John. In the summer holidays their children came to the Rhine, then the family would move back to the United States.
Equipment no longer needed was sold. Often Kathi, Susan und Helene went to Coblenz and purchased a lot. During their last visit Chiara took them to their little army farm, where her children helped working. “They are glad that they could contribute. We could provide our hospitals and our children with good milk and fresh vegetables, and beyond that, we could give milk to German children in need. And now that we are going to leave, all our hearts grow a bit heavy.”
The picture is from the German Wikipedia, public domain section.